Disclaimer: The view(s) expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or position of Brooke Army Medical Center, the Department of the Air Force, the Department of Defense or its components.


  • Recap Episode 1
  • Discuss benefits of inclusion for women, men, and business


  • Relive the beginning of the Choo/Kass dynasty

Show guests:

Ester Choo, MD, MPH

Dara Kass, MD

Recap of Episode 1

  • Real stories of women physicians from across the United States

Women inherently care about this topic. Why should men and physician groups/companies care beyond equality?

  • Corporations with more diverse boards/leaderships are more profitable 1,2
  • Choo and Dr. Kass have a general approach for best practices for women in a distributable document 3
  • This is not only fair for women, this creates a better work environment for everyone4
  • Better for patient care
    • Example: More women physicians in emergency departments led to increase in survival for MI patients regardless of taken care of by female or male physician4

How did you get involved?

  • Choo
    • Both a researcher and clinician. Similar gender disparities in both so accustomed to the dearth of women within her profession
    • Discouraged throughout beginning of career and even into mid-career with gender barriers
      • Not getting leadership position(s)
      • Not receiving an offer for leadership position
      • Not achieving salary goals
    • National groups provided a community that had shared experiences similar to hers
    • Data aligned with perception of disparities
      • Driven to provide opportunity for women that wasn’t available for her in the beginning of her career
  • Kass
    • Important to understand that this is not a solo endeavor. Progress must be inclusive
    • Strategies for pulling each other up as women? Fight for all women’s issues – even those that aren’t affecting you currently – as those with a particular issue are typically the most vulnerable and may not be able to advocate for themselves in that situation
      • It’s problematic to advise exclusive breast feeding without lactation policies/areas in the ED, major conferences, etc

Additional women in leadership data

  • Greater number of women in leadership positions (>30% of women on board) increase financial performance- Annals of EM 20175
  • Reputation for inclusion helps with recruitment and inclusion of either gender Annals of EM 20175

ACEP’s self-reflection

  • ACEP has acknowledged that they are not as diverse as they would like
  • Created the clinical emergency data registry
    • ongoing gathering of data for racial/gender differences on delivery of care

Dynastical Evolution

  • Choo and Kass met at the Academy for Women in Academic Emergency Medicine (AWAEM) meeting
  • Esther ChooEsther Chen. Classic mix up by Dara
  • Duo is so strong as both are passionate but have varying skillsets
    • Accepting of allowing others to take charge of projects
    • Identify their own strengths
    • Advocate for BUILDING THAT RAFT


  1. Hunt , Vivian, et al. “Delivering Through Diversity.” McKinsey & Company, Jan. 2018, mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/business%20functions/organization/our%20insights/delivering%20through%20diversity/delivering-through-diversity_full-report.ashx.
  2. Noland, Marcus, et al. “Is Gender Diversity Profitable? Evidence from a Global Survey.” Peterson Institute for International Economics Working Paper Series, Feb. 2016, piie.com/publications/wp/wp16-3.pdf.
  3. Choo, Esther K, et al. “The Development of Best Practice Recommendations to Support the Hiring, Recruitment, and Advancement of Women Physicians in Emergency Medicine.” Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2016, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286760.
  4. Greenwood, Brad N., et al. “Patient–Physician Gender Concordance and Increased Mortality among Female Heart Attack Patients.”PNAS, National Academy of Sciences, 21 Aug. 2018, pnas.org/content/115/34/8569.
  5. Parker, Rebecca Bollinger, et al. “Why Diversity and Inclusion Are Critical to the American College of Emergency Physicians’ Future Success.”Annals of Emergency Medicine, U.S. National Library of Medicine, June 2017, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28139303.