• Recognize the prevalence of gender inequities in medicine.
  • Understand how gender inequities manifest in professional settings.
  • Learn and develop strategies to mitigate gender inequities.
  • Implement solutions to promote gender equity in the workplace.


  1. Recognize and develop strategies to mitigate biased language and behaviors in the workplace.
  2. Explore the factors that contribute to the gender pay gap and develop practical solutions to promote pay equity.
  3. Explore the factors that contribute to decreased retention and fewer promotions for women physicians and develop comprehensive strategies to recruit, retain and promote women in medicine.

Module Content


The One Word Men Never See In Their Performance Reviews

Objective: 1
Kathleen Davis
2 minutes

This article is a quick read on the use of the word 'abrasive' in women's performance evaluations. Used at a shockingly higher rate for women than men, this term connotes negativity and something that is attributable to the woman's personality, rather than behavioral specifics that can change.

Comparison of Male vs Female Resident Milestone Evaluations by Faculty During Emergency Medicine Residency Training

Objective: 1
Dayal A, O'Connor D, Quadri U, and Arora V
15 minutes

Female residents are often given conflicting and biased feedback based on societal expectations, particularly in response to utilizing stereotypically "masculine" behaviors such as decisiveness, confidence, etc. This commentary on a recent finding that female EM residents consistently have lower milestone evaluations than the male residents, urges both program directors and physician instructors to give and interpret feedback with a gender-lens, identifying what feedback is likely due to bias, and attempting to self-police for providing biased feedback to residents.

Equity in Starting Salaries: A Tangible Effort to Achieve Gender Equity in Medicine.

Objective: 2
Choo EK and Bangsberg DR.
2 minutes

In this short read detailing the significant gender pay gap in medicine, the writer recommends systematizing pay equity for new residency graduates, paired with regular audits to ensure equity in compensation for physicians.

Closing the gender pay gap in medicine

Objective: 2
Amy Paturel, MS, MPH
5 minutes

"In this short read, issues surrounding the pay gap in medicine are explained. The article explores some of the nuances, including that women may work less hours, especially during child rearing years, and overall choose less lucrative specialties. Yet, even with these issues, there are frank examples of unequal pay. Good primer for going passed the sound bites related to the pay gap.

The True Story of the Gender Pay Gap

Objective: 2
Stephen J. Dubner
43 minutes

This episodes explores the nuances of the pay gap with Harvard Economics professor, Dr. Claudia Goldin. Dr. Goldin has dedicated her career to understanding the pay gap. She acknowledges the role of discrimination but also explains how discrimmination alone does not account for the gap. She discusses that sometimes women choose positions with less monetary compensation but more flexibility. She also discusses that the focus on women being poor negotiatiors doesn't hold up to scrutiny either. Be prepared for many pay gap myths to be fully debunked. Listening to this episode will make you more aware of how to view your salary individuality and how to really close the gap.

From #MeToo to #TimesUp in health care: can a culture of accountability end inequity and harassment?

Objective: 3
Choo EK, Byington CL, Johnson NL, Jagsi R4
6 minutes

Medicine remains a field where gender-based harassment is rife, fostering further disparities in compensation, advancement and opportunity for women. This article collectively sums up how a "Time's Up" in healthcare would change the structure, processes and outcomes in healthcare organizations, leading to global changes that would mitigate gender-based harassment and discrimination.

Time’s Up for Medicine? Only Time Will Tell

Objective: 3
Esther K. Choo, M.D., M.P.H., Jane van Dis, M.D., and Dara Kass, M.D.
8 minutes

This NEJM article provides a quick review of gender-based disparities in medicine and steps institutions can take to close the gaps.

A Study Used Sensors to Show That Men and Women Are Treated Differently at Work

Objective: 3
Stephen Turban, Laura Freeman and Ben Waber
10 minutes

A look at metadata from sensors worn by men and women in the workplace revelas that there are very few differences in the behaviors or men and women. Rather, gender bias is the reason for inequity. Rather than telling women to change, companies should focus on reducing bias in the workplace.

Gender Differences in Faculty Rank Among Academic Emergency Physicians in the United States.

Objective: 3
Bennett, CL et al
15 minutes

Despite controlling for various factors that may influence faculty rank, does a gender bias exist academic medicine? This article, based on a cross-sectional review of statistics on Doximity.com finds that female academic EM physicians are less likely than men to hold rank of professor.

Women in the Workplace 2018

Objective: 3
Alexis Krivkovich, Marie-Claude Nadeau, Kelsey Robinson, Nicole Robinson, Irina Starikova, and Lareina Yee
15 minutes

Touching on the highlights of Women in the Workplace 2018, a study conducted by McKinsey in partnership with LeanIn.Org, this article looks at why progress towards gender diversity in the workplace has stalled.

The Development of Best Practice Recommendations to Support the Hiring, Recruitment, and Advancement of Women Physicians in Emergency Medicine

Objective: 3
Choo, EK et al
20 minutes

Women in medicine continue to experience disparities in earnings, promotion, and leadership roles. There are few guidelines in place defining organization-level factors that promote a supportive workplace environment beneficial to women in emergency medicine (EM). This document outlines best practice recommendations to support women's professional development in both community and academic EM settings.

Gender-Based Career Disparities in Medicine as guest speaker at Stanford Emergency Medicine Grand Rounds 2.13.19

Objective: 3
Esther Choo, MD, MPH
50 minutes

In this YouTube recorded lecture, one of the luminaries and top researchers of WIM movement, Dr. Esther Choo, reviews the evidence of gender-based career disparities in medicine. It's a worthwhile overview of this issue.

Women in Medicine, Be Bold.

Objective: 3
Leah Witt
60 minutes

This podcast explores the (dis)parity of women in medicine, ideas around mentorship and sponsorship, the fact that we ask women to continually shoulder the burden of 'leaning in', and the doctors discuss ways to manage it all through the lens of a case study. It's an hour - but worth the listen on a commute or during an exercise session.

Talking Points and Discussion Questions

  1. How do you respond when asked if gender equity is still really an issue in medicine? For example, “After all, med school classes are now 50% women.”

  2. How transparent is pay in your practice or institution? How could you impact more transparency or pay equity where you work?

  3. How do respond to biased feedback? For example, “You should be more confident,” or “Your voice is too high pitched.”

  4. What gender equity initiatives are present in your practice or institution? How could you start or contribute to positive change in your workplace?

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